Poultry farming is an activity that involves nurturing several categories of domestic birds for producing food such as eggs and meat. Poultry farming in India is the fastest developing area under agriculture and farming business. There are 3 million farmers practicing poultry farming. What initially used to be limited to backyard farming has presently transformed and expanded into a techno-commercial industry.
Cost of Starting a Poultry Farm Business
The cost one is expected to incur when initiating a poultry business mainly depends on its scale. In India, the approximate cost involved is as follows –
- Small scale poultry farm – INR 50,000 to 1,50,000
- Medium-scale poultry farm – INR 1,50,000 to 3,50,000
- Large scale poultry farm – INR 7,00,000 to 10,00,000
Step-by-Step procedure to Start a Poultry Farm
Step 1: Creating a business plan
A business plan is a roadmap that includes the specifics of how to achieve business goals. The business plan for poultry farming would ideally possess the following –
1. Finding a suitable location to start the poultry farm.
2. List of required equipment.
3. Deciding the variety of birds on the farm.
4. Details of processes such as egg production, broiler breeding, etc.
5. Specifics relating to various resources such as human resources, financial resources, etc.
6. Plans for marketing and advertising strategies.
7. Information on legal clearances required, such as licenses and permissions.
Step 2: Selection of Location and Procuring Required Equipment
One of the most crucial steps is to find the appropriate land for the business. This step is the costliest while setting up the business. The size of the land may vary depending on the type and scale of the business. Primarily, there are four types of poultry farms, they are –
1. Free Range Poultry Farm – Approximately 12,000 to 36,000 sq. ft. is required as birds will be allowed to move around freely.
2. Semi Range Poultry Farm – Approximately 8000 sq. ft. is required for this farm type.
3. Battery Cage Poultry Farm – Approximately 6,000 sq. ft. is required for the birds and infrastructure. In this type of farm, the birds will not be let loose to move around.
4. Completely Wild Poultry Farm – This type of farm is similar to the birds’ natural habitat with plenty of trees. Approximately 44,000 sq. ft. will be required for the same.
Other factors to consider when selecting the location would be to find an area away from the city, preferably safe, calm, and pollution-free, with easily accessible amenities such as fresh water and a market to buy commodities. However, it is always advisable to start the poultry farm on one’s land when commercializing poultry production.
Additionally, understanding what equipment is required for the business’s functioning and procuring them is essential at the preliminary stage. But first, it is necessary to decide which system to follow. According to India’s conditions, 3 systems are suitable: intensive system, semi-intensive system, and extensive system.
Step 3: Deciding the Variation of Bird used in Poultry Farming
India is home to one of the biggest markets for poultry around the world. Despite the presence of a variety of birds such as chicken, geese, turkey, ducks, guinea fowl, quail, and many more, the poultry farms majorly raise chickens. There exist over 600 variations of chicken across the world, and 92 are grown in India to produce meat and eggs. The 3 most common categories of chicken in India are the following –
- Broiler chickens – They possess a high growth rate and can reach their fully grown stage in 8 weeks. Broiler chickens also have a high quantity of meat.
- Layer chickens –These birds are a unique breed under hens. They begin laying from 18 to 19 weeks and can continue to do so until 72 to 78 weeks. Layer chickens can produce above 250 eggs per year, and they consume approximately 2.25 kg of feed.
- Rooster chickens –These birds, also known as a cock, is the male gallinaceous bird. When they are young, they are called a cockerel, and they are called a rooster when they become an adult. They take time to grow but can guard the hens laying eggs due to their territorial instincts. Roosters are capable of quickly adapting to changing environments, and therefore they can be conveniently transported.
Step 4: Taking measures for the care and management of Poultry Farm
It is imperative to keep precautionary measures to ensure the birds’ health and safety, which will help in their proper nurturing and growth. There are some threats when running a poultry farm, but the main one remains poultry diseases. Providing clean water, nutritious food, and regular vaccinations to the poultry is essential. Taking adequate measures and having consistent regulation will ensure one does not face huge losses due to the diseases and other potential risks.
Step 5: Getting the required Licenses/Permissions for starting a Poultry Farm
The legal aspects concerning a poultry farm in India were initially not easy to get around. However, considering the increasing demand for poultry products, India’s Government is taking steps to support and promote the poultry farm business. Wherefore, with the right legal assistance, one can start and maintain a poultry farm in India without much maintenance after getting the required permissions and licenses.
The licenses required to be procured by the owner of the poultry farm before starting the business in India are as follows –
- No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the local village Panchayat.
- No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the Pollution Board.
- Permission for the use of electricity. One will be required to use an electrical transformer depending on the size of the poultry farm.
- License from the Groundwater Department.
Step 6: Conducting effective marketing and advertising
After deciding the name and a unique logo for the business, marketing poultry products in India is easy because of high demand. One can sell the products in the nearest markets and further even transport them to nearby cities, depending on the production scale.
Profit from Poultry Farm Business
Poultry Farming is a profitable business in India. The average time period to reach the Breakeven Point is estimated to be just 6 months. The size of the business plays a key role in earning profit. However, it is observed that a decent profit is made even from a small scale poultry farm. Additionally, beyond limiting sale to just eggs and meat, one may choose to sell feathers and by-products such as manure to gain added profits.
It is always advisable that if you are planning to start your own poultry farm business, before you begin, visit a running farm to attain a practical awareness about the functioning of a poultry farm.
Benefits of Poultry Farming
- The consumers are getting highly conscious of healthy eating so this has helped the poultry farming a lot. Consumers prefer poultry products as they are high in nutrition. Moreover, no religious taboos are revolving around poultry products.
- Poultry farming at a commercial level is a profitable business and a field with ample opportunities for budding Entrepreneurs. Banks across the country provide loans to aid business initiation.
- In India, a poultry farming business can be initiated with smaller capital, unlike other businesses. Further, it can function with minimal utility availability such as water, electricity, and light. Therefore, there is scope for exponential expansion that can be easily executed in the future.
- It would increase job opportunities drastically, and there are institutes and training centers available from where one can learn professionally about poultry farming. Some being –
- Dr. B.V. Rao Institute of Poultry Management & Technology, Pune
- Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar
- Indira Gandhi National Open University, Delhi
- National School of Open Schooling, Delhi
Candidates eligible to apply for Poultry Venture Capital Fund scheme
The following entities are eligible to apply which helps to obtain assistance under the poultry venture capital fund scheme includes – farmers, individual entrepreneurs, NGOs, private limited company, cooperatives, groups of the unorganized and organized sector etc.
The below are the list of subsidies available for poultry farms in India.
- The subsidy for north east region, hilly areas, LWE affected districts are 33.33% for BPL/SC/ST and for the APL is 25%.
- For Breeding farms for low input technology birds species the ceiling subsidy provided is 25% for Rs. 7.50 lakh.
- The subsidy for central grower unitsupto 16000 layer chicks per batch is 25% for Rs. 10 lakhs.
- Subsidy for hybrid layer units nearly 20000 layers is 25% for Rs. 2 lakhs.
- The subsidy for rearing other species of poultry is 25% of Rs. 5 lakhs. It also varies based on the size and the species.
- The subsidy provided for feed mixing units one ton per hour is 25% for Rs. 4 lakhs.
- The subsidy provided for transport vehicles open cage is 25% for Rs. 2 lakhs.
- The subsidy provided for transport vehicles refrigerated is 25% for for Rs. 2 lakhs.
- The subsidy provided for retail outlets marketing units is 25% for Rs. 3.75 lakhs
- The subsidy provided forretail outlets dressing units is 25% for Rs. 2.50 lakhs
- The subsidy provided formobile marketing units is 25% for Rs. 2.50 lakhs
- The subsidy provided for cold storage for poultry products is 25% for Rs. 5 lakhs
- The subsidy provided for egg or broiler carts is 25%.
- The subsidy provided for large processing units is 25% for Rs. 125 lakhs
- The subsidy provided for Emu processing units is 25% for Rs. 250 lakhs
- The subsidy provided for feather processing units or litter management is 25% for Rs. 125 lakhs. But this also varies in size of the unit.
- The subsidy provided for technology up gradation or an innovation including waste disposal or incinerators, mini-hatchers, egg vending machines etc. is 25% for Rs. 125 lakhs for new and innovative projects or value added cap depending upon the scope and importance of the project.
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